Troubleshooting 100G Links Using PCS Lanes

On , in Client Side, Errors & Alarms, Ethernet, General, by Tony Goodchild

Understanding the condition of the PCS lanes is crucial to troubleshooting 100G links during network deployments. At the most basic level understanding that there are errors at the PCS indicates that the root cause of the fault lies with the physical signalling and not at the MAC layer or any of the high network layers […]

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Understanding 100G OTN Error & Alarm Conditions – LOL

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, General, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

Loss Of Lane Alignment (LOL) is declared on 100G interfaces when it has not been possible to successfully recover the Logical Lane Marker (LLM) from the logical lanes and then re-assemble the OTU4 frame. During the lane recovery process the LLM will be present in a lane every 16320 bytes, when the same LLM value […]

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Understanding 100G OTN Error & Alarm Conditions – LOFLANE

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

At 100G speeds OTN uses a multilane implementation to achieve the OTU4 client interface. Using these multilane interfaces can present a number of challenges and new defect conditions have been defined to support these. LOFLANE is a loss of frame defect on a logical lane. In some ways it is similar to Loss Of Block Lock […]

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Understanding Phase Modulation For 100G Transmission

On , in All Posts, General, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

There are a number of challenges to achieving 100Gb/s optical transmission rates using the technologies that have been deployed at 10Gb/s and even 40Gb/s. Using traditional transmission technologies such as NRZ modulation on the line will result in very poor spectral efficiency and a 100G signal using NRZ would not fit into the standard 50GHz […]

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Are Chromatic Dispersion Measurements Required Before Installing Coherent Systems?

On , in All Posts, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

Bearing in mind that the Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance of coherent systems can be up to 50.000ps/nm it is clear that CD measurements have lost part of their value. (We will be discussing the line side technology and the effect of chromatic and polarisation mode dispersion in an article very soon) However there are several […]

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Understanding The 100G Ethernet Client

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Ethernet, by Tony Goodchild

The client interface for 100Gb/s Ethernet is standardised in IEEE802.3ba as an amendment to the full 802.3 specification. The client interface for Ethernet at 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s is fundamentally different from the earlier 10Gb/s and lower rates. At these lower rates the interface is specified as a serial stream of data that is line coded […]

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Understanding The Difference Between The Line Side And The Client Side

On , in All Posts, Client Side, General, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

So what exactly is the difference between the line side and client side of the network?   The client side of the network is where traffic will come on-ramp into the optical backbone. In this case the client side interface will be used to interconnect between the metro networks and the optical backbone. So why […]

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