100G Power Measurement Challenges

On , in Client Side, Ethernet, General, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

Deploying networks using CFP transceivers presents a set of challenges that did not exist with previous generations of Ethernet. Any CFP based 100G Ethernet deployment will commonly use a WDM interface – the only exception to this is in the case of using SR10 CFPs – and this in itself is enough to require a […]


Troubleshooting 100G Links Using PCS Lanes

On , in Client Side, Errors & Alarms, Ethernet, General, by Tony Goodchild

Understanding the condition of the PCS lanes is crucial to troubleshooting 100G links during network deployments. At the most basic level understanding that there are errors at the PCS indicates that the root cause of the fault lies with the physical signalling and not at the MAC layer or any of the high network layers […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding 100G OTN Error & Alarm Conditions – LOL

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, General, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

Loss Of Lane Alignment (LOL) is declared on 100G interfaces when it has not been possible to successfully recover the Logical Lane Marker (LLM) from the logical lanes and then re-assemble the OTU4 frame. During the lane recovery process the LLM will be present in a lane every 16320 bytes, when the same LLM value […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding 100G Ethernet Error & Alarm Conditions – High BER

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, Ethernet, General, by Tony Goodchild

100G Ethernet includes a process that continually monitors the performance of  received PCS data and triggers an alarm condition in the event that an excessive error ratio is detected. When receiving data at the PCS each lane is checked for errors in the 2 bit sync header in each 66b block. A counter is maintained […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding 100G OTN Error & Alarm Conditions – LOFLANE

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

At 100G speeds OTN uses a multilane implementation to achieve the OTU4 client interface. Using these multilane interfaces can present a number of challenges and new defect conditions have been defined to support these. LOFLANE is a loss of frame defect on a logical lane. In some ways it is similar to Loss Of Block Lock […]

Tagged with:  

How does Skew impact latency measurement?

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Ethernet, General, by Tony Goodchild

Now more than ever latency is a key network quality metric, with financial institutions and other Enterprise customers demanding absolutely minimal latency from their service provider. With Skew being an inherent part of a 100G Ethernet link, field engineers starting to roll out these services commonly ask how will Skew levels affect the latency measurements […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding 100G OTN

On , in All Posts, Client Side, General, OTN, by Tony Goodchild

OTN uses a similar multi-lane mechanism to 100G Ethernet to achieve 100G rates. The parallel interfaces are defined in an appendix of the G.709 recommendation.  The recommendation includes definitions of parallel interfaces for both 40G and 100G rates and within this a new signal was defined for parallel interfaces – the Optical Channel Transport Lane (OTL). […]

Tagged with:  

Staged CFP Testing

On , in All Posts, Client Side, by Tony Goodchild

Unlike previous pluggable transceiver modules there is a real requirement to test the CFP in a staging area prior to deployment. Previous devices such as the SFP or XFP currently are available with commodity pricing from almost $50 to a a few thousand dollars depending on the required interface support. In comparison the CFP can […]

Tagged with:  

Guard Bands – Enablers For Co-existence Of Coherent 100G Signals And Non-coherent 10G NRZ Signals

On , in All Posts, General, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

The coherent 100G transmission systems from network equipment vendors are showing an amazing robustness and tolerance for high PMD and CD. Some are reporting a PMD tolerance of up to 100ps DGD and above, while the CD tolerance can be in the range of up to 50.000ps/nm. Therefore the ideal network for deploying such coherent […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding Polarisation Multiplexing

On , in All Posts, General, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

Polarisation multiplexing is commonly used in 100Gb/s line side transmission as a method to increase the bit rate over the line without increasing the transmitted symbol rate. Using polarisation controllers it is possible to generate two perpendicular polarised optical signals on the same wavelength for transmission through a single fibre. As two separate signals are […]

Tagged with:  

Understanding Phase Modulation For 100G Transmission

On , in All Posts, General, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

There are a number of challenges to achieving 100Gb/s optical transmission rates using the technologies that have been deployed at 10Gb/s and even 40Gb/s. Using traditional transmission technologies such as NRZ modulation on the line will result in very poor spectral efficiency and a 100G signal using NRZ would not fit into the standard 50GHz […]

Tagged with:  

Are Chromatic Dispersion Measurements Required Before Installing Coherent Systems?

On , in All Posts, Line Side, by Tony Goodchild

Bearing in mind that the Chromatic Dispersion (CD) tolerance of coherent systems can be up to 50.000ps/nm it is clear that CD measurements have lost part of their value. (We will be discussing the line side technology and the effect of chromatic and polarisation mode dispersion in an article very soon) However there are several […]

Tagged with:  

Alignment Markers And Associated Alarm & Error Conditions

On , in All Posts, Client Side, Errors & Alarms, Ethernet, by Tony Goodchild

The alignment marker is used for the identification of the PCS lanes. They allow the receiving network equipment to identify the lanes as they are received so that that they can be re-ordered. So what is an alignment marker? An alignment marker is a single 66 bit block that is inserted into the stream of […]

Tagged with:  

Looking for something?

Use the form below to search the site:

Still not finding what you're looking for? Drop a comment on a post or contact us so we can take care of it!

Visit our friends!

A few highly recommended friends...